Microneedle with Chitosan Adjuvant as an Alternative Method of Administration of COVID-19 Vaccination with Nucleocapsid Protein Targets
Keywords:COVID-19, SARS-CoV 2 protein, COVID-19 vaccination, Microneedles COVID-19 vaccination, Chitosan adjuvant, Chitosan allergy, Infection disease
Background: Researchers had been contriving to develop vaccines as a way to eradicate the COVID-19 pandemic. Several vaccines had been inaugurated with the intramuscular administration (IM) route, which has a higher risk of a shoulder injury. Microneedle, an alternative administration route that had been studied, showed more advantages compared to IM. Besides, chitosan as an adjuvant was also studied to increase immune response. This study aimed to explore further the use of microneedle as a method of COVID-19 vaccine administration with chitosan as adjuvants and nucleocapsid as vaccine target due to their benefits in the future.
Aims: This literature review was assembled by exploring and analysing various studies of our topic from several sources, which accounted for 24 studies.
Results: A potential vaccination target was spike protein due to its essential role in binding to ACE2 for virus entry into target cells. However, due to the large number of vaccinations targeting spike protein and many mutations, research about vaccination with nucleocapsid protein as the target was carried out. COVID-19 vaccine targeting nucleocapsid proteins exhibited a robust immune response even stronger than spike protein by dot blot analysis, and microneedles target SARS-CoV-2 nucleocapsid protein has a balanced ratio of IgG1 and IgG2A nucleocapsid antibodies that are essential for virus extermination. The use of chitosan as an adjuvant helped reduce the dose of vaccine and the risk of allergy.
Conclusion: Vaccine administration through microneedles, chitosan as an adjuvant, and nucleocapsid as vaccine target had the potential to be an alternative, especially in a pandemic situation.
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