Genetic Contribution to Immune Response of COVID-19 Vaccination
Keywords:host genetic variations, COVID-19 vaccine, immune response, HLA
Background;, COVID-19 is an acute respiratory syndrome caused by SARS-COV2 infection. COVID-19 vaccination has been shown to reduce the risk of severe symptoms and death. However, the immune response to vaccination can vary between individuals. Advance age, the presence of comobidity, autoimmune, and germline genetic variants can affect vaccine efficacy and lead to breakthrough infection.
Reviews; Underlying germline genetic variations that affect humoral and cellular responses to COVID-19 vaccination may explain different degrees of post-vaccination immune responses. Current publications are being reviewed to discuss the impacts of genetic variants of HLA (human leukocyte antigens) and non-HLA genes on both the humoral (titre of anti SARSCoV2 IgG and IgA) and cellular response (T-cells activation). The literature is being evaluated in terms of population demographic, type of intervention (platforms of COVID-19 vaccine used), comparison of immune response level before and after vaccination, immune response being the outcomes.
Conclusion; Genetic variations in both HLA and non-HLA genes may play a role in immune responses. This information may be useful to develop a better vaccine design. However, these variants are not yet consistently reproduced in different research settings despite similar immune readouts (high or low titers of anti IgG). Furthermore, only one literature showed the association of HLADQB1*06 and high antibody response titres, as well as a lower incidence of breakthrough infections. Therefore, at this stage, the genetic variant is not a useful determinant of deciding whether or not a certain population will receive or withhold the COVID-19 vaccine.
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